Central America is one of the regions most affected by climatic events causing human, economic, social, cultural and environmental losses. This situation limits the possibilities to achieve sustainable development.
In Latin America and the Caribbean, in the past decade, more than 15 million people were affected by floods while more than 3 million were affected by extreme droughts and almost 5 million by extreme temperatures. (Oxfam International, From words to facts, 2014).
According to the Global Climate Risk Index, Honduras is the most vulnerable country in the world and the most affected by climate change in the ultimate 20 years, while 19% of its territory is under conditions of water scarcity. Nicaragua and Guatemala are also on the list of the 10 most affected countries.
In Nicaragua, more than 80% of the poor population lives in remote rural areas and the country holds fourth place in the global ranking of Climate Risk. In El Salvador, 83% of the 42 disasters that took place between 1970 and 2011 were of hydrometeorological origin. Furthermore, in 2010, 95% of the Salvadorian population lived in high risk areas and in 2012 the country ranked 13 in the global ranking of Climate Risk.
The Central American picture is not a favorable one. According to the prevision of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the number of people at risk from suffering hunger in all of Latin America could rise by 5 million people by year 2020 and up to 26 million people by 2050.
Climate change is substantively affecting both food production and life conditions of the farming and indigenous families in Central America, endangering their food security and livelihood.
Central America contributes little to global climate change but has to endure some of its most negative impacts, such as foods, droughts hurricanes and other types of disasters leaving the population without resources to survive (inspiraction.org).
In view of this situation, recognizing Central America as a region HIGHLY VULNERABLE to climate change would facilitate the channeling of new funds toward the countries of the region and the funding of actions contributing to the integrated risk management and adaptation to climate change, giving priority to the most vulnerable sectors and to the citizen participation.